Reducing greenhouse gas output is the only long-term solution to slowing and eventually turning back global warming. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) can pull CO2 out of the atmosphere and store it in various forms, sometimes deep underground or mixed with calcium to form a solid stored near the surface. These methods and technologies to implement the are still in early stages of development, and certainly have not withstood the test of long-term stability. There is a limit to how much and how quickly and safely CO2 can be captured and stored. The only means to completely stopping the increase of CO2 levels into the atmosphere is to reduce overall outputs.
In their ongoing role as advisers to the development of state-level climate actions plans, the Center for Climate Strategies has amassed a portfolio of climate mitigation options in the hundreds. These options are categorized by the Center in the following categories:
Energy Efficiency and Conservation: a. Building design and operation; b. Appliance and equipment efficiency; c. Other efficiency options; d. Enabling and incentive policies.
Clean, Advanced, and Renewable Energy: a. Renewable energy; b. Advanced fossil fuel technologies; c. Waste energy recycling (capture/recovery and use); d. Enabling and incentive policies.
Transportation and Land Use Efficiency: a. Transportation system efficiency; b. Location efficiency; c. Alternative fuels; d. Efficient vehicle design; e. Operational efficiency.
Agriculture and Forestry: a. Forest protection; b. Forest establishment and restoration; c. Forest management; d. Agricultural practices; e. Agricultural land use management; f. Bioenergy production.
Waste Management, Industrial Processes, and Other Sources: a. Solid waste and wastewater management; b. High global warming gas management (refrigerant choice, industrial process design).
As each region has different sources for energy throughout the world, along with other geographic issues such as seasonal temperatures, length of days, etc. different mitigation options that meet the needs of local conditions are required.
The UNFCCC reports on mitigation efforts, from technology transfer to rural development.